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动感灯箱电子元器件常识

动感灯箱元器件介绍图
 
电子元器件基本常识
 
 电子设备的电子元件主要包括以下几个方面:电阻类、电容类、电感类、电声类、晶体类(晶振、二极管、三极管)、IC类等。也就是我们工作中所要见到和接触到的,以下分别作以介绍。
 
第一节:电  阻
 
电阻是电子设备组成的必不可少的元件之一,也是常用元件之一。

1.定义:

阻止电压和电流通过的一类电子元器件,称为电阻,它是一种耗能元件。             

2.作用:

降压、分流、限流等.                                                    

3.代号和符号:

字母代号---R.  
 动感灯箱元器件介绍图1              
: 排阻属于特种电阻它是有方向性的,带有标记的为它的第一只脚
 
电阻的基本单位: 

欧姆(Ω)。国际单位有:兆欧(MΩ)、千欧(KΩ)  
                           
5.电阻的换算:

1KΩ=1000Ω

1MΩ=1000KΩ=1000 000Ω

即:1KΩ=103Ω 

1MΩ=103KΩ=106Ω
                
电阻的分类:   
         
A. 从功率上分有:1/2W、1/4W、1/8W、1/16W、1W、2W、5W、10W等.                 
           
B.从材料上分为:金属膜电阻、碳膜电阻(碳素皮膜电阻)、线绕电阻、水泥电阻等。       
                  
C.从标示上分为:直标电阻(阻值直接标示出来)、色环电阻(最常见)、贴片电阻(小体积,上面有数字标识)等。                 
                                 
B. 7.色环电阻的识别(四色环电阻).                
                                    
A.色环电阻上各颜色所代表的数字如下: 棕红橙黄绿蓝紫灰白黑金银 
                 
1234567890   ±5  ±10       

(记忆口诀可为:一棕二红三橙四黄,五绿六蓝,七紫八灰九白零黑)---金、银为误差值。  

B.四色环电阻的识别原则:
动感灯箱元器件介绍图2
a、第一色环代表电阻的第一位有效数字;        
         
b、第二色环代表电阻的第二位有效数字;            
                                                  
c、第三色环代表电阻的前两位有效数字的倍乘数;        

d、第四色环代表电阻的阻值误差范围值;(目前本公司四色环电阻误差为± 5%)         
                                                               
:色环电阻误差值用各颜色代表为:  金:±5%

银:±10%  无色:±20%  棕:±1%  绿:±0﹒5%  蓝:±0﹒25  紫:±0﹒1%   

其阻值为:1 2 × 103  ±5%=12KΩ±5%  棕红橙金  
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
:四色环电阻换算时,前2位数(色环换算出来)照写,第三位数(色环代表值)为倍乘数(在前2位数的后面是1--则加1个“0”;是2--则加2个“0”;是3--则加3个“0”……)。

当第三色环为黑色时直读前2位数即可;

当第三色环为金色时前2位数×0、1(10-1,此电阻阻值应为1—9Ω之间);当第三色环为银色时前2位数×0、01(10-2,此电阻阻值应为1Ω以下)。第四色环代表电阻的阻值误差,我们只作了解,在四色环电阻的阻值换算时可以不管它。                                                                            

C.五色环电阻的识别原则(也叫精密电阻):                                                                                  
 
 a.1,2,3,道色环依次表示它的前三位有效数字;    
动感灯箱元器件介绍图3
b.第4道色环表示电阻的前三位有效数字的倍乘数;            
                               
c.第5道色环代表电阻的阻值误差范围值

其阻值为: 7 5 0  × 102  ±1% =75 KΩ±1%

8我们在对色环电阻进行识别、换算时,首先要找出色环电阻的第一道色环,本公司所用的四色环电阻,金色皆为误差范围值--也就是最后一道色环了,那么就很容易分辨出哪是第一道色环的了。四色环电阻在进行色环的颜色识别—换算时,其规律大致如下:                                                                                 
      A.当电阻的第三色环是银色时,表示此电阻的阻值是零点几欧姆;    
                                                                         
      B.当电阻的第三色环是金色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几点几欧姆;         
                                                                     
      C.当电阻的第三色环是黑色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几十几欧姆;         
                                                                     
      D.当电阻的第三色环是棕色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几百几十欧姆;       
                                                                       
      E.当电阻的第三色环是红色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几点几K欧姆;            
                                                                  
      F.当电阻的第三色环是橙色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几十几K欧姆;            
                                                                  
      G.当电阻的第三色环是黄色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几百几十K欧姆;          
                                                                   
      H.当电阻的第三色环是绿色时,表示此电阻的阻值是几点几M欧姆。 
                                                                             
 9、五色环电阻在进行识别时,便要特别注意了,因其最后一道色环---误差色环,基本都是棕色或其它几种颜色,很容易误将其当作第一道色环来换算,且我们目前所用精密电阻的色环印刷位置不规范,所以只能靠我们的经验来判断、识别。无法判断、识别时只能靠仪器来测量                     了。                                                                                   
    
注:目前本公司所用的精密电阻大致为以下几种规格:      
                                                                          
     A.棕 黑 黑 橙 棕           B.紫 绿 黑 棕 棕           C.绿 黑 黑 红 棕                                                            
        1  0  0  3  ±1%           7  5  0  1  ±1%            5  0  0  2  ±1%                                           
   阻值为:100KΩ±1%          阻值为:7、5KΩ±1%          阻值为:50KΩ±1%              
                                                 
     D.白 绿 黑 橙 棕           E.红 黑 黑 橙 棕            F.棕 绿 黑 橙 棕                                                         
        9  5  0  3  ±1%           2  0  0  3  ±1%            1  5  0  3  ±1%                                    
   阻值为:950KΩ±1%          阻值为:200KΩ±1%           阻值为:150KΩ±1%        
                                                                         
 10、贴片电阻的识别与换算:

贴片电阻的阻值是以数字的形式直接标示在贴片电阻上,其前几位数为有效数字,最后一位数为前几位数的倍乘数。       
                                                                            
   例:123  表示其阻值是:12×103 =12KΩ       473  表示其阻值是:47×103=47KΩ                                                                       
          101  表示其阻值是:10×101 =100Ω       4R7  表示其阻值是:4、7Ω                                                                   
          102  表示其阻值是:10×102 =1KΩ        R47  表示其阻值是:0、47Ω                                                                         
         5623  表示其阻值是:562×103 =562KΩ     1502 表示其阻值是:150×102=15KΩ 
 
:有些贴片电阻上面的标示为数字后面带有英文字母如:23A 、69A---这是贴片电阻的阻值代码,无法换算。若想得到这类贴片电阻的真正阻值,只能查阅相关的代码换算表或相关的材料表。                                                                              
11、电阻是无方向性的电子元件,我们只要将电阻安装(插入)PCB板相关Rn的位置即可。在PCB板上的每个R的阻值不尽相同,要求工作中切不可将电阻插错地方,更不可随便弄一个电阻便插上,一定要按照材料表要求,不同阻值的电阻插入不同R的位置。
 
  
 第二节:电容             
                                            
1.定义:

能够把电能以电荷的形式储存起来的这一类元器件。它属于一种储能元器件。      
       
2.特性:

通高频、阻低频;通交流、阻直流。   
                                                                                                                      
3.作用:

藕合、滤波、旁路、振荡、反馈等。  
                                                                                                           
4.代号和符号:

字母代号---C

本公司PCB板上用C、EC表示  
5.电容的基本单位:

法拉(F)。国际单位有:毫法(mF)、微法(uF)、纳法(nF)、皮法(pF)。            

6.电容的换算:

1F=1000mF=1000 000uF=1000 000 000nF=1000 000 000 000PF。     即:1F=103mF=106uF=109nF=1012PF。            .                                                                                    
其中:1mF=1000uF;    1uF =1000nF;    1nF=1000pF;     1uF =1000 000pF。                                                                 

7.电容的分类:     
                                                                              

 A.按极性分:有极性电容和无极性电容。                       
                                                      
 B.按材料分:电解电容(钽电解电容)、聚脂电容、瓷片电容、色环电容、贴片电容等。                  
                                                            
 C.按是否可调分:可调电容与非可调电容。                                                                              

8.电容的容量识别与换算:   
                                                                                

A.电解电容的识别:其容量的大小是直接标注在本体上(电容的主身)的,如下图所示,  另有一个数值为电解电容的最高耐压值。其容量、耐压值皆带有识别与换算单位。(电解电容在使用过程中,两个电容的容量相同时,耐压值大的可以替换耐压值小的,但是耐压值小的切不可替换耐压值大的。耐压值小的替换耐压值大的,因其耐压不够会发生爆裂。) 
 
本体标注上
+105C(M)为电解电容的使用环境温度值,使用时可以不作考虑!10uF便是电解电容的容量值;                            
  
25V是电解电容的最高耐压值。* 25V表示此电容最大使用电压为25伏特。  
                
电解电容是有方向性的元件 

它的两个脚在未加工前,长脚为正极、短脚为负极。工作中一定要区分其在PCB板上的方向、容量、耐压值。电解电容在PCB板上的标识一般为---代号EC:
 
B.瓷片电容与聚脂电容的容量识别:在它们的本体上一般都用数字的形式标识出来,前几位为有效数字,最后一位数为前几位有效数字的倍乘数,其单位是皮法(pF)。(其识别与换算的方法和电阻是差不多的,只不过是换算单位不同而已。
C. 色环电容的识别同四色环电阻的换算类似,只不过是少了一道误差色环(本公司最常见的是三色环电容),且换算单位是皮法(pF)。其颜色所代表的数字如同色环电阻的一样。                    
                                                         
 D. 普通贴片电容的识别就比较困难了:其本体无标识,一般从其表面看不出结果的,只能用仪器测量或看其原始的标识。它的本体颜色通常是表示其耐压值的,少数为制造材料所致,因此看其本体颜色来判定电容的容量是不正确的。                                                                            

 9.瓷片电容与聚脂电容、普通贴片电容、色环电容都是无方向性的,工作中只要注意不同容量的电容,要按照材料表的要求,安装(插入)不同Cn的位置。(它们的耐压值一般不作考虑)。           
                                                                       
第三节:二极管

1.定义:

由一个PN结构成,具有单向导电特性的晶体管,称为二极管。      
     
2.特性:

具有单向导电性。

3.代号和符号:

字母代号---一般用D表示。

 本公司PCB板上用D、ZD表示.   
 

极管的分类:   

A.按材料分:硅二极管、锗二极管。
 
B.按作用分:开关、整流、肖特基、稳压、检波、变容、发光、光敏、热敏二极管等。          
                                                                   
C.按工艺分:点接触二极管与面接触二极管。                                                                   

5.二极管的识别:

二极管的类别很多,我们最常见的要数肖特基二极管、开关二极管、稳压二极及发光二极管。 
                                                                                 
  A.肖特基二极管、整流二极管的本体从外表上看是黑色的,上面靠一边有一道银白色的标记,是它的负极,而另一边则为正极。它的体积较大,本体上面还有其型号标示。     
 
  B.稳压二极管和开关二极管的本体从外表上看是红色的,上面靠一边有一道黑色的标记,那是它们的负极,另一边则为正极了。它们的体积较小,本体上皆有识别其型号的标示。

稳压二极管(字母代号-ZD)和开关二极管(字母代号-ZD)在使用的过程中,很容易混淆。本公司目前所用开关二极管只有“1N4148”一种,稳压二极管则有二种:5.1V和3.3V。使用的过程中只要小心、严格区分本体上面的标识,就不会造成错误。                                                  
                               
C.发光二极管、红外发光二极管它们的两个脚在未加工前,长脚为正极、短脚为负极。       
                                                                     
发光二极管在使用的过程中还需注意其发光颜色、发光亮度(高、低亮度)及直径(体积大小)。
发光二极管本体(部分为半透明状)之中,正极(长脚)在本体之中的金属部分较小,负极(短脚)在本体之中的金属部分较大。部分发光二极管顶视图(PCB板上示意图)

D.贴片二极管的识别比较麻烦。贴片稳压二极管和贴片开关二极管的本体上面除了极性标识,再无任何标识,且二者外表相似,也有部分其它贴片二极管上有标识,这些贴片二极管的型号都要看其原始的标识,以及查阅相关的代码换算表或相关的材料表。

E. 二极管是有方向性的元件 ,在生产过程中不可安装(插件)错方向的,而且绝不可以搞错型号,否则除了本身会损坏外,还容易损坏其它的元器件。                           

第四节:三极管

1.定义:

由两个PN结通过一定的工艺加工构成,且具有放大作用的晶体管,称为三极管。 
          
2.特性:

具有放大性。                                    
                                                                                     
3.作用: 

放大作用、调整、开关、振荡等。   

4. 代号和符号:

字母代号---一般用BG或Q表示。 
 
 本公司PCB板上用Q表示.    
5.三极管的分类:  
                                                                                  
A.按材料分:硅三极管、锗三极管。         
                                                                    
B.按结构分:NPN型和PNP型。              
                                                               
C.按作用分:放大管、开关管、振荡管、调整管等。             
                                                                                                               
D.按功率分:小功率管、中功率管、大功率管.
 
6.三极管的识别:

A.目前本公司所用的三极管有小功率管A1267(N型)、C3199(P型)、C2668(P型)等。这几种三极管的管脚从左至右分别为发射极(e)、集电极(c)、基极(b)。本体上面有其型号标识,
如下图:
B.本公司所用的中功率三极管有2SC945P、S8050D等。除了其体积比以上几种三极管稍大、本体标识不同之外,其它基本类似。

7.三极管是有方向性的元件 ,

在安装(插件)时,三极管的三只脚一定要按其规定的位置安装(插件),且不同型号的三极管按照相关材料表的要求,安装(插件)于不同Qn的位置。三极管的安装(插件)方法是:把三极管有标识的一面正对自己,左边为第一只脚(e脚),将此脚对准PCB板上Qn的印刷标示的小方格插装下去即可。(如上图)                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
第五节:晶   体

 本公司生产的鼠标PCB板上,最常见的另一种的特殊元器件——晶体。晶体又分为发射晶体和接收晶体,其实我们常说的发射晶体,实质上就是一种红外线发光二极管,接收晶体实质上就是光敏二极管的一种,只不过根据实际需要,做成我们现在所见(光宝晶体)的形状罢了。
 
1.发射晶体:

能发出我们肉眼的所看不见的一类光,即红外线光。发射晶体有二只脚, 它的本体是白色透明的,能看清里面的构造。它本体其中一面的正上方有一小圆凸点,为它的正面(使用时,这个正面必须面对接收晶体)。在其顶端标有色点,代表其等级(也就是“型号”)。  
2.接收晶体:

接收晶体有三个脚,它的本体是黑色不透明的,它的本体上面有一个面完全是平的,那是它的正面。另一面下方有一道台阶是反面(在使用时接收晶体完全平的一面,应对着发射晶体凸的一面),在其本体顶端上面标有色点,代表其等级(也就是“型号”)                     

注:光宝接收晶体还分为垂直接收和水平接收,从接收体的侧面可以看便可以区分了。


3.发射晶体和接收晶体是有方向的元件,

它们的方向通过看或摸,很容易区分开,也就是说发射晶体有凸点的一面,必须面对接收晶体完全平的一面。 

4.晶体有严格的等级区分(即型号区分)。

不管是接收还是发射晶体,都是在其顶端用色点来表示其等级。不同色点的发射必须配不同色点的接收。晶体主要就是通过色点来区分型号的。(光宝晶体其顶端的色点一样时,长脚、短脚的晶体等级是一样的)。而公司所用另外一种“亿光晶体”,不光通过色点来区分等级,而且要通过长脚,短脚的等级也各不相同的(在其顶端的色点一样时,长脚,短脚的等级也各不相同的)。   
.接收,发射在使用时,二者之间高度是有一定比例的,在使用长脚晶体时,会用到治具。治具的作用主要是调节发射,接收晶体之间的高度,所以,根据机型的不同,所用长脚晶体的治具也不所不同,万万不可乱用!

 第六节:电   感

1.定义:

能够把电能以磁能的形式储存起来的这一类元器件称为电感。它也属于一种储能元器件。     
        
2.特性:

通直流、阻交流;通低频、阻高频。
                                                                                                                         
3.作用:

振荡、滤波、变压、振荡、藕合等   

4.代号和符号:

字母代号---L.

本公司PCB板上用L表示.  

5.电感的基本单位:亨(H)。国际单位有:毫亨(mH)、微亨(uH)。                                

6.电感的换算:      1H=103mH=106uH     1H=1000mH=1000.000uH=1000.000.000nH=1000.000.000.000pH                                                                
                                                                                                                                                            
7.电感的分类
                                                                                    
  A.按是否可调分:固定式电感、可调式电感。                
                                                            
  B.按自感和互感分:线圈和变压器。   

  C.按适用频率分:高频线圈、中频线圈、低频线圈。            

 7.电感量的识别:

色环电感 色环电感的识别同四色环电阻的换算类似,只不过是换算单位是微亨(uH)。     

8.贴片电感的识别与换算:

 贴片电感本体上面有其电感量的标识。 如:4R7---表示其电感量为47uH (微亨);R56---表示其电感量为056uH (微亨)。这种标识法和贴片电阻的标识法有点相似,应加以区分(两者的外形及体积是有很大差别的)。
 
9。电感是无方向性的电子元件


我们只要将电感安装(插入)PCB板相关Ln的位置即可。    

第七节:排  针     
                    
排针的结构很简单,在本公司PCB板上最常用.如下图:

本公司PCB板上用CON表示.          
第八节:IC                                     

1.IC:  

也就是常说的集成块,它是各分离元件的一个组合体:

2.作用

因IC是诸多电阻,电容,电感,二极管,三极管等元器件的组合体故其作用相当之多,只要各分类元件所共有的功能,它都可能具有甚至于更好.不同IC有不同的功能.

3.使用IC的好处

可减小品的体积和重量.可使产品的性能提高.稳定性更好.便于生产线大量作业.可使生产成本降低.  

                                                      
 
Basic knowledge of electronic components
 
  Electronic components of electronic equipment mainly include the following aspects: resistors, capacitors, inductors, electroacoustics, crystals (crystal, diode, triode), IC, etc. That is what we want to see and touch in our work, the following are introduced separately.
 
Section 1: Resistance
 
Resistor is one of the indispensable components of electronic equipment and one of the commonly used components.
1. Definition: A type of electronic component that blocks the passage of voltage and current, called a resistor, which is an energy consuming component.
2. Role: buck, shunt, current limit, etc.
3. Code and symbol: letter code --- R.
               
Note: The exclusion is a special resistance. It is directional, with the first foot marked.
 
 
The basic unit of resistance: ohms (Ω). International units are: megohm (MΩ), kiloohm (KΩ)
                           
5. Conversion of resistance:
1KΩ=1000Ω
1MΩ=1000KΩ=1000 000Ω
Namely: 1KΩ=103Ω
1MΩ=103KΩ=106Ω
                
Classification of resistance:
A. From the power points are: 1/2W, 1/4W, 1/8W, 1/16W, 1W, 2W, 5W, 10W, etc. B. From the material is divided into: metal film resistance, carbon film resistance (carbon Plain film resistance), wirewound resistance, cement resistance, etc. C. From the mark, it is divided into: direct mark resistance (resistance value is directly indicated), color ring resistance (most common), chip resistance (small volume, digital mark on it).
B.7. Identification of color ring resistance (four-color ring resistance). A. The numbers represented by the colors on the color ring resistance are as follows: brown red orange yellow green blue purple gray white black gold silver
                 
 
1234567890 ±5 ±10
(Memory mouth can be: one brown two red three orange four yellow, five green six blue, seven purple eight gray nine white zero black) --- gold, silver for the error value.
B. Identification principle of four-color ring resistance:
 a, the first color ring represents the first significant digit of the resistance;
b. The second color circle represents the second significant digit of the resistor;
c. The third color circle represents a multiple of the first two significant digits of the resistance;
d, the fourth color circle represents the resistance error range value of the resistor; (currently the company's four-color ring resistance error is ± 5%)
Note: The color ring resistance error value is represented by each color: Gold: ± 5%
Silver: ±10% Colorless: ±20% Brown: ±1% Green: ±0.5% Blue: ±0.25 Purple: ±0.1%
Its resistance is: 1 2 × 103 ± 5% = 12KΩ ± 5% brown red orange gold
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
That is, when the four-color ring resistance is converted, the first two digits (color circle conversion) are written, and the third digit (color ring representative value) is a multiplier (after the first two digits is 1-- plus 1 "0"; 2-- plus 2 "0"; 3-- plus 3 "0"...). When the third color ring is black, the first 2 digits can be read directly; when the third color ring is gold, the first 2 digits × 0, 1 (10-1, the resistance value should be between 1 and 9 Ω) When the third color ring is silver, the first 2 digits × 0, 01 (10-2, the resistance value should be 1Ω or less). The fourth color circle represents the resistance error of the resistor. We only know that it can be ignored when converting the resistance of the four-color ring resistor. C. The principle of identification of five-color ring resistors (also called precision resistors):
  A.1, 2, 3, the color circle in turn represents its first three significant digits;
 
 
 
 12345 in order of purple green black red brownb. The fourth color ring represents the multiple of the first three significant digits of the resistor;
c. The fifth color ring represents the resistance error range of the resistor
 Its resistance is: 7 5 0 × 102 ±1% =75 KΩ±1%
8. When we identify and convert the color ring resistance, we first need to find the first color ring of the excellent ring resistance. The four color ring resistors used by the company, the gold color are the error range values ​​- that is, the last color. Ring, then it is easy to tell which is the first color ring. The color of the four-color ring resistor is recognized as follows:
      A. When the third color ring of the resistor is silver, it means that the resistance of the resistor is a few tenths of an ohm;
      B. When the third color ring of the resistor is gold, it indicates that the resistance of the resistor is a few ohms;
      C. When the third color ring of the resistor is black, it means that the resistance of the resistor is several tens of ohms;
      D. When the third color ring of the resistor is brown, it indicates that the resistance of the resistor is several hundred tens of ohms;
      E. When the third color ring of the resistor is red, it indicates that the resistance of the resistor is a few K ohms;
      F. When the third color ring of the resistor is orange, it indicates that the resistance of the resistor is several tens of K ohms;
      G. When the third color ring of the resistor is yellow, it indicates that the resistance of the resistor is several hundred tens of K ohms;
      H. When the third color ring of the resistor is green, it indicates that the resistance of the resistor is a few M ohms.
 9, five-color ring resistance in the identification, it must pay special attention, because its last color ring - error color ring, basically brown or other colors, it is easy to mistake it as the first color The ring is converted, and the color ring printing position of the precision resistor we are currently using is not standardized, so we can only judge and identify it by our experience. Can not judge, identify can only be measured by the instrument.
    Note: At present, the precision resistors used by the company are roughly as follows:
     A. Brown black black orange brown B. Purple green black brown brown C. Green black black red brown
        1 0 0 3 ±1% 7 5 0 1 ±1% 5 0 0 2 ±1%
   Resistance: 100KΩ ± 1% Resistance: 7, 5KΩ ± 1% Resistance: 50KΩ ± 1%
     D. White green black orange brown E. Red black black orange brown F. Brown green black orange brown
        9 5 0 3 ±1% 2 0 0 3 ±1% 1 5 0 3 ±1%
   Resistance: 950KΩ ± 1% Resistance: 200KΩ ± 1% Resistance: 150KΩ ± 1%
 10. Identification and conversion of chip resistor: The resistance of the chip resistor is directly indicated on the chip resistor in the form of digital. The first digit is the effective digit, and the last digit is the multiplication of the first few digits. number.
   Example: 123 means that its resistance is: 12 × 103 = 12KΩ 473 means its resistance is: 47 × 103 = 47KΩ
          101 means that its resistance is: 10 × 101 = 100 Ω 4R7 means its resistance is: 4, 7 Ω
          102 means that its resistance is: 10 × 102 =1 KΩ R47 means its resistance is: 0, 47Ω
         5623 indicates that its resistance is: 562 × 103 = 562KΩ 1502, indicating that its resistance is: 150 × 102 = 15KΩ
 
Note: Some of the chip resistors are marked with numbers followed by English letters such as: 23A, 69A--- This is the resistance code of the chip resistor and cannot be converted. If you want to get the true resistance of this type of chip resistor, you can only refer to the relevant code change.A spreadsheet or related material table.
11. The resistor is a non-directional electronic component. We only need to install (insert) the resistor to the position of the Rn related to the PCB. The resistance value of each R on the PCB is not the same. It is required that the resistors should not be inserted into the wrong place during operation. It is not allowed to insert a resistor. It must be inserted according to the requirements of the material table. The location of R.
 
  
 Section 2: Capacitance
1. Definition: This type of component that can store electrical energy in the form of a charge. It belongs to an energy storage component.
2. Characteristics: pass high frequency, resist low frequency; pass AC, block DC.
3. Function: coupling, filtering, bypassing, oscillation, feedback, etc.
4. Code and symbol: letter code --- C.The company's PCB board is represented by C and EC.
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. The basic unit of capacitance: Farah (F). International units are: millifarad (mF), microfarad (uF), nanofabrication (nF), and picofarad (pF). 6. Conversion of capacitance: 1F=1000mF=1000 000uF=1000 000 000nF=1000 000 000 000PF. That is: 1F=103mF=106uF=109nF=1012PF. .
     Wherein: 1 mF = 1000 uF; 1 uF = 1000 nF; 1 nF = 1000 pF; 1 uF = 1000 000 pF.
7. Classification of capacitors:
      A. According to the polarity: there are polar capacitors and non-polar capacitors.
      B. According to the material: electrolytic capacitor (tantalum electrolytic capacitor), polyester capacitor, ceramic capacitor, color ring capacitor, chip capacitor and so on.
      C. According to whether it can be adjusted: adjustable capacitor and non-adjustable capacitor.
8. Capacitance capacity identification and conversion:
       A. Identification of electrolytic capacitors: The size of the capacitor is directly marked on the body (the main body of the capacitor), as shown in the figure below, and another value is the highest withstand voltage of the electrolytic capacitor. Both the capacity and the withstand voltage value are identified and converted. (In the process of using the electrolytic capacitor, when the capacity of the two capacitors is the same, the withstand voltage value can be replaced by a small withstand voltage value, but the withstand voltage value is small and cannot be replaced with a large withstand voltage value. If the pressure is high, it will burst due to insufficient pressure.)This body is labeled:
+105. C(M) is the ambient temperature value of the electrolytic capacitor. It can be ignored when used. 10uF is the capacity value of the electrolytic capacitor.
25V is the highest withstand voltage of electrolytic capacitors. * 25V means that the maximum operating voltage of this capacitor is 25 volts.
 
                
Electrolytic capacitors are directional components
 
Its two feet are unprocessed, the long legs are positive and the short legs are negative. Work must distinguish its direction, capacity, and withstand voltage on the PCB. The identification of electrolytic capacitors on the PCB is generally --- code EC:
 
B. Capacity identification of ceramic capacitors and polyester capacitors: they are generally identified in digital form on their bodies. The first few digits are significant digits, and the last digit is the multiple of the first few significant digits. The unit is Peel method (pF). (The method of identification and conversion is similar to the resistance, except that the conversion unit is different.
 
 C. The identification of the color ring capacitor is similar to the conversion of the four color ring resistor, except that there is one error color ring (the most common one is the three color ring capacitor), and the conversion unit is picofarad (pF). The color represents the same number as the color ring resistor.
       D. It is more difficult to identify the ordinary chip capacitor: the body has no mark, and generally the result is not visible from the surface. Only the instrument can be used to measure or look at the original mark. Its body color usually indicates its withstand voltage value, and a few are caused by manufacturing materials. Therefore, it is not correct to determine the capacity of the capacitor by looking at its body color.
9. Ceramic capacitors and polyester capacitors, common chip capacitors, and color ring capacitors are non-directional. Just pay attention to the capacitance of different capacities during operation. Install (insert) different Cn positions according to the requirements of the material table. (Their pressure values ​​are generally not considered).
Section III: Diode
1. Definition: A transistor with a unidirectional conduction characteristic, called a diode, formed by a PN structure.
2. Characteristics: It has unidirectional conductivity.
3. Code and symbol: The letter code --- is generally indicated by D.
 The company's PCB board is represented by D and ZD.
4. Classification of diodes:
       A. Divided by material: silicon diode, germanium diode.
       B. According to the action: switch, rectification, Schottky, voltage regulation, detection, variable capacitance, light, photosensitive, thermal diodes, etc.
       C. According to the process: point contact diode and surface contact diode.
5. Diode identification: There are many types of diodes. The most common ones are Schottky diodes, switching diodes, regulated diodes and LEDs.
       A. The body of the Schottky diode and the rectifier diode is black in appearance, with a silver-white mark on one side of the upper side, which is the negative pole, and the other side is the positive pole. It is large in size and has a model number on the body.
  B. The body of the Zener diode and the switching diode are red in appearance, with a black mark on one side, which is their negative pole, and the other side is positive. They are small in size and have an indication of their model number on the body.
Note: Zener diodes (letter code -ZD) and switching diodes (letter code -ZD) are easily confused during use. The company currently uses only one type of switching diode, "1N4148", and two types of Zener diodes: 5.1V and 3.3V. In the process of use, as long as the label on the body is carefully and strictly separated, no error will be caused.
       C. Light-emitting diodes and infrared light-emitting diodes have two legs before they are processed, the long legs are positive and the short legs are negative.
In the process of using the LED, attention should also be paid to its illuminating color, illuminating brightness (high and low brightness) and diameter (volume).Among the light-emitting diode bodies (partially translucent), the metal portion of the positive electrode (long legs) in the body is small, and the metal portion of the negative electrode (short legs) in the body is large. Partial LED top view (schema on the PCB)
D. The identification of the chip diode is cumbersome. The body of the chip Zener diode and the SMD switch diode has no mark except the polarity mark, and the two are similar in appearance. Some other chip diodes have the mark on them. The models of these chip diodes must look at the original. Identification, as well as access to relevant code conversion tables or related material tables.
 
E. The diode is a directional component. It cannot be installed (plug-in) in the wrong direction during the production process, and it must not be mistaken for the model. Otherwise, it will easily damage other components besides being damaged. Section IV: Triode
1. Definition: A transistor consisting of two PN junctions processed by a certain process and having amplification, called a triode.
2. Characteristics: It has magnification.
3. Function: Amplification, adjustment, switching, oscillation, etc.
 
4. Code and symbol: The letter code - generally expressed in BG or Q.
 
 
 The company's PCB board is represented by Q.
 
5. Classification of triodes:
A. According to the material: silicon triode, 锗 triode.
B. According to the structure: NPN type and PNP type.
C. According to the action: enlarge the tube, switch tube, oscillating tube, adjusting tube, etc. D. According to power: small power tube, medium power tube, high power tube.
 
6. Triode identification:
A. At present, the triodes used by the company have small power tubes A1267 (N type), C3199 (P type), C2668 (P type).
Wait. The pins of these triodes are the emitter (e), the collector (c), and the base (b) from left to right. The body has a model number on it.
As shown below:
 
 
 B. The medium power triode used by the company has 2SC945P, S8050D and so on. Other than its volume is slightly larger than the above triodes and the body logo is different, the other is basically similar.
 
 
 
  
7. The triode is a directional component. When installing (plug-in), the three legs of the triode must be installed (plug-in) according to their specified positions, and different types of triodes are installed (plug-ins) according to the requirements of the relevant material tables. The location of Qn. The triode installation (plug-in) method is: the side of the triode with the logo is facing itself, the left side is the first leg (e-foot), and the foot is aligned with the printed square of the Qn on the PCB. can. (pictured above)  Section 5: Crystal
 The company's mouse PCB board, the most common special component - crystal. The crystal is divided into a transmitting crystal and a receiving crystal. In fact, the emitting crystal we often say is essentially an infrared light emitting diode. The receiving crystal is essentially a kind of photodiode, but it is made according to actual needs. The shape of (Gibo crystal).
 
1. Emission crystal: It can emit a kind of light that is invisible to our naked eyes, that is, infrared light. The launching crystal has two feet, and its body is white and transparent, so that the structure inside can be seen. There is a small round bump directly above one side of the body, which is the front side (this front surface must face the receiving crystal when in use). It is marked with a color point at its top to represent its level (ie "model").2. Receiving crystal: The receiving crystal has three legs, its body is black opaque, and its body has a flat surface that is completely flat, which is its front side. On the other side, there is a step which is the reverse side (the surface that receives the crystal is completely flat when used, and the side that emits the convex surface of the crystal), and the top of the body is marked with a color point on its top (ie, "model").
       Note: Lite-On receiving crystals are also divided into vertical receiving and horizontal receiving, which can be distinguished from the side of the receiving body.
 
 
 
3. The emitting crystal and the receiving crystal are directional elements whose orientation is easily separated by looking or touching, that is, the side of the emitting crystal having a bump must face the fully flat side of the receiving crystal.4. Crystals have a strict grade distinction (ie model differentiation). Whether receiving or emitting a crystal, the color point is used to indicate its level at the top. The emission of different color points must be received with different color points. The crystal is mainly used to distinguish the model by color point. (When the crystal color of the top crystal is the same, the crystal grade of the long and short feet is the same). The other kind of "Yiguang crystal" used by the company not only distinguishes the grades by color points, but also has long grades and shortfoot grades. (When the top color points are the same, long legs, short legs The grades are also different).
 
5. When receiving and transmitting, there is a certain ratio between the heights. When using long-leg crystals, the fixture is used. The role of the fixture is mainly to adjust the emission and receive the height between the crystals. Therefore, depending on the model, the fixtures of the long-leg crystals used are not the same, and must not be used indiscriminately!
  Section 6: Electrical Sense
1. Definition: This type of component that can store electrical energy in the form of magnetic energy is called an inductor. It also belongs to an energy storage component.
2. Characteristics: pass DC, resist AC; pass low frequency, block high frequency.
3. Function: oscillation, filtering, transformation, oscillation, coupling, etc.
4. Code and symbol: letter code --- L.
The company's PCB board is indicated by L.
 5. The basic unit of inductance: Hen (H). International units are: millihen (mH), microhenry (uH). 6. Inductance conversion: 1H=103mH=106uH
                   1H=1000mH=1000.000uH=1000.000.000nH=1000.000.000.000pH
                                                                                                                                                            
7. Classification of inductance:
A. According to whether it can be adjusted: fixed inductor, adjustable inductor.
B. According to self-inductance and mutual inductance: coil and transformer. C. According to the applicable frequency: high frequency coil, intermediate frequency coil, low frequency coil. 7. Identification of inductance: (color ring inductance) The identification of the color ring inductance is similar to the conversion of the four color ring resistance, except that the conversion unit is microhenry (uH).
8. Identification and conversion of chip inductors:
 The chip inductor body has an indication of its inductance. For example: 4R7--- indicates that the inductance is 4, 7uH (micro-henry); R56--- indicates that the inductance is 0, 56uH (micro-henry). This marking method and the marking method of the chip resistor are somewhat similar and should be distinguished (the shape and volume of the two are very different).
 9. The inductor is a non-directional electronic component. We only need to install (insert) the inductor into the Ln position of the PCB.
Section 7: Pins The structure of the pin headers is very simple and is most commonly used on our PCB boards. The following figure: The company's PCB board is indicated by CON.
 
Section 8: IC 1.IC: Also known as the integrated block, it is a combination of separate components:
2. Role: Because IC is a combination of many resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, triodes and other components, so its role is quite large, as long as the functions shared by the various components, it may have even better. Different ICs have different functions.
3. The benefits of using IC: can reduce the size and weight of the product. Can improve the performance of the product. Better stability. Easy to work on a large number of production lines. Can reduce production costs.
 

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